The types of visual thinking tools I use to help deal with my own cognitive deficits are mind mapping, sketch noting and doodling. All can be done manually with a pen or pencil and paper. Mind mapping greatly increases its assist by using a program such as my preferred choice iMindMap or alternatives XMIND, MindManager, or dozens of other programs. Sketch noting and doodling are typically done with a pen and paper or a tablet or smartphone and a drawing program.
Click on the mind model (mind map) to expand its size.